Tuesday, September 6, 2011

Vol 137

Shit. My notes so far and I still have 30 minutes of class to go.


Psych 390

Sept 6th

Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology

Division of the nervous system
Central Nervous system (CNS) – brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
            Somatic –sensory nerves to CNS
                              -motors nerves to muscles and glands
Autonomic – neurons that control heart, intestines, and other organs

Organization of the Spinal cord
White = Fibers (malinated axis)
Gray = Cells (cell bodies)
Dorsal = Sensory (import)
Ventral = Motor (sensory output)
Ganglion – site of cell bodies

Transmit information to and from the brain
Reflex control of motor activity
Some integrative functions

Sympathetic System: (Thoracic/Lumbar system)
Controls fight or flight response
Release ACH at ganglia (ganglia are interconnected)
Release norepinephrine at target
Increase heart rate, increase blood pressure

Parasympathetic system: (Cranial/Sacral Origin)
Counteracts the effect of the sympathetic system.
Helps build resources.
Ganglia are not interconnected
Release ACH at both ganglia and target. No release of adrenaline.

Division of CNS:
Spinal cord
Ascending/descending fiber tracts
Postural reflexes – maintain upright position
Reflex control of swallowing and vomiting

Continuation of fiber tracts
Postural reflexes
Bulge – fibers connect to cerebellum
Locus Coeruleus and Reticular Formation: maintenance of sleeping and walking (collection of nerve cells)

Reticular formation: Cortical EEG
Dopaminergic nuclei – substantia nigra, VTA; Parkinson’s Disease

Superior colliculus; visual reflex center (located above inferior colliculus)
Inferior colliculus; auditory reflexes

            Jerky movement
            Input from all sensory systems

Controls pituitary
Sympathetic NS
Regulation of food intake

Relay nuclei (every sensory system goes through)

Basal Ganglia
Striatum: caudate globus palldus putamen
Motor Functions: Extrpyramidal system
nAccumbens: reinforcement

Limbic System
Limbic Lode include temporal neocortex
Emotion/Motivation (amygdala, septum, cingulate)
Hippocampus: Spatial learning/memory

Cerebral Cortex
            Six distinct layers of cells
            Organized into columns in which cells have similar or related properties
Sensory, motor, association cortex – modality specific
Relative increase in association cortex: higher nervous processes
Bilateral representation (with some exceptions, e.g.,  language)
Corpus callosum: Fiver bundle responsible for interhem

Blood-Brain Battier
Refers to permeability barriers that present obstacles to the diffusion of chemicals from blood and CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) to neurons.
Produce by close-fitting, continuous epithelial cells of brain capillaries
What can pass the blood brain barrier?
Passive transport – require no energy to pass
            Small uncharged molecules such as O2 and CO2
            Molecules that can dissolve in fat
Active transport – requires energy
            Glucose, amino acids, vitamins and hormones

Circumventricular Organs:
Neural structures that are functionally on the blood side of the barrier
Monitor blood and CFS and communicate with neurons on the other side of the barrier

Glial Cells
Glia cells are concerned with the maintenance and integrity of neurons.
Oligodendrocytes produce myelin sheaths that insulate motor axons in CNS
Schwann cells have a similar function in the periphery
Astrocytes pass chemicals back and forth between neurons and blood and among various neurons in an area
Microglia proliferate in areas of brain damage and remove toxic materials

Designed to admit and receive information